The government's Project Bioshield, which requires that the government and private industry produce and stockpile vaccines to protect Americans in the event of a terror attack, became P.L. 108-276. The law has three parts. The first directs the Public Health Service to conduct research and development on biomedical countermeasures through the Director of the National Institutes of Health and the Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The second provides these agencies with contracting authority to procure effective countermeasures such as vaccines and serums against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. The third allows the Secretary of Health and Human Services to approve promising new drugs and devices on an emergency basis.